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Khuzdl

The Angerthas                    Angerthas Erebor

Dwarf-kind, or the Khazd as they name themselves, have always been extremely secretive about the ways of their own people.  Nearly nothing is known of their customs other than general mode of dress and some food preferences, and nearly nothing is known of their lives, other than physical form and lifespan.  Therefore, it is not very surprising that nearly nothing is known of their language as well.  In fact, what little is known has been gleaned from place-names, inscriptions, and the occasional battle-cry or insult.  What is known, however, is outlined here.

Khuzdl appears to be quite different indeed from any other language of Ennor, even on its most basic level.  Rather than being primarily composed of roots and added prefixes or suffixes to derive different word forms as are any of the Eldarin tongues, the language is something like Hebrew or Arabic in that the root-stems of words are of consonants only.  Derivations are therefore formed by adding vowels in between the consonants in certain ways.  All the precise methods to this are not quite known, but a few deductions can be made from available sources.

Pronunciation

Grammar

Word listing

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GRAMMAR

Plurals

When a word has its first vowel as the first letter of the word, it stays the same and the last vowel is fully lengthened.

A short word with only one or two consonants and a single vowel has its vowel fully lengthened even if the vowel does begin the word.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel a, it is changed to e and a replaces the last vowel or is added in the last syllable if there is no vowel.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel e, it is changed to a and the last vowel is fully lengthened.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel i, it stays the same and replaces the last vowel or is added in the last syllable if there is no vowel.

When a word has a first-syllable vowel u, it is changed to a and replaces the last vowel or is added in the last syllable if there is no vowel.

  Cases

There appears to be a genetive case involving -u in which any word that ends in another vowel comes to end in -u instead, and a word ending in a consonant has -u appended; therfore a word such as burk - "axe" becomes burku - "axe of".  Also this affects plurals; the plural bark - "axes" becomes bark - "axes of".

There appears to be an ending -n which describes a person, thing, or place characterized by the root-word

  Conjugations

Unfortunately nothing is known here.

  Sentence structure

There appears to be no is/am/are verb (and perhaps no direct being verbs at all).

Adjectives appear to precede nouns most of the time even in compounds, but there are a couple of known exceptions.

No consonant mutations of any sort appear to exist.