free web hosting | free website | Business Hosting Services | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting

Home (Main Index)

Email Us (any questions welcome)

Places

   Beleriand

   Eldamar

   Eriador

   Arnor

   Rhovannion

   Rhn

   Rohan

   Gondor

   Mordor

Time

   First Age

   Second Age

   Third Age

   Fourth Age

   Fifth Age

People

   Men (Aphadrim)

   Elves (Eldar)

   Dwarves (Khazad)

   Hobbits (Periannath)

Eldarin Language Resources

Noun Cases

    This is one of the most distinct features of Quenya, along with being the portion of grammar that can seem quite confusing to a beginner (in contrast, much of the rest of Quenya grammar seems simpler than Sindarin!).  The basis here is that, while English for example uses word placement entirely to distinguish subject from object, and even Sindarin has separate words to describe to, for, etc, Quenya actually changes endings on the noun!

    Here also are other "case" endings for types of nouns, which are more difficult to explain in relation to English.

******

Let us take a single noun to work with, so as to reduce confusion.  This will be "cirya", ship.

 

NOMINATIVE - Marking the subject of a phrase; the subject noun is the one that is being described or that is performing an action.

    cirya

**

ACCUSATIVE - Marking a direct object, such as "book" in "he gave the boy a book".   It differs from the nominative/subject form by a lengthening of the last vowel.

    ciry

**

DATIVE - Marking an indirect object, such as "boy" in "he gave the boy a book" or "queen" in "he works for the queen".  In Sindarin, this would be shown by the preceding preposition an - "to, for".  In Quenya, it usually becomes another noun case, formed by appending -n to the noun.

    ciryan - (an action) "for a ship", (an action) "to a ship"

        (plurals end in -in)

        (if the noun ends in -m or -n, an -e- is inserted before adding the dative -n)

**

GENITIVE - Showing the subject's relation to something (such as source, or connection; the English translation would be the same as a possessive word, but in Quenya is different).  The genitive is created by appending -o to nouns and names to show relation, source, origin, etc.  See sentence structure guide for an explanation of where each kind of genitive is placed.

    ciryo - "ship's" (as in ship's captain)

Also can modify the subject noun by being appended to another word:

    cirya Eresso - "ship of Eressa"

(also works with "about", "concerning")

(in words ending in -a, the -o replaces the -a)

(plurals end in -on)

**

POSSESSIVE - Showing possession of something by the subject.  The possessive is created by appending -va to nouns and names.  See sentence structure guide for an explanation of where each kind of possessive is placed.

    ciryava - "ship's" (as in ship's mast)

Also can modify the subject noun by being appended to another word:

    cirya Eldava - "ship belonging to the Elda"

        (in singular words ending in a vowel, a lengthened vowel is substituted; also - > )

        (in plural words ending in -, -- replaces the -)

**

ALLATIVE - Speaks of movement to or toward something, or onto something.  In Sindarin, this would be shown by the preceding prepositions na - "to, towards" or nam - "upon".  In Quenya, this is shown by appending -nna to a noun, to describe what is being moved or acted toward.

   ciryanna - "toward a ship", (ex.; looking) "upon a ship"

        (plurals end in -ar)

        (duals end in -nta)

        (if the noun ends in -m or -n, an -e- is inserted before adding the allative -nna)

**

ABLATIVE - Speaks of where a thing or person is from.  The ablative is formed by adding -llo.

    ciryallo - "from a ship"

        (plurals end in -on)

        (duals end in -lto)

**

LOCATIVE - Explains the location of something; "it is in", "it is upon".  This is done by adding the ending -ss.

    ciryass - "in / upon a ship"

        (plurals end in -ssen)

        (duals end in -ts)

**

INSTRUMENTAL - Used to denoting how something else is accomplished.  In Sindarin, this would be shown by the word ne - "with, by, whereby, by means of".  In Quenya, this meaning is shown by appending -nen to the noun.

    ciryanen - (ex.; traveling) "with a ship", "by ship"

(plurals end in -inen; if the noun ends in -a, -o, -u, the initial -i- of the ending merges with the last vowel of the noun to form a diphthong)

(Duals end in -nten)

(if the noun ends in -m or -n, an -e- is inserted before adding the instrumental -nen)