Quenya Language Resources
Variations (vowel changes caused by endings)
Proper names (of races, peoples, some places)
SENTENCE STRUCTURE - THE RULES
1.) When forming a sentence or phrase for everyday conversation, follow this rule: subject (and its modifiers), then verb (and any adverbs), then indirect object (and its modifiers), then direct object (and its modifiers). When writing or speaking poetically, however, this rule appears no longer to be in effect. For example, a verse can be formed verb-subject-object (as in "Swiftly flow the waters to the sea").
2.) To form a question, the word ma is added to the beginning of a statement (unless the question begins with an interrogative pronoun).
2.) Pronouns are expressed primarily by suffix. If a verb is to receive two pronoun endings, one denoting the subject of the verb and the second the object, the subject ending is attached first and the object ending next.
3.) Pronouns that are separate words, not endings, tend to be placed in the same areas as they would be in English; subject before modifiers, object after subject and modifiers, and etc...
4.) Adjectives must agree with the nouns they describe in number (plural or single). For how adjectival plurals are made, see the document on Plurals.
5.) An attributive adjective precedes a noun if it is merely descriptive (voronwa Elendil - "faithful Elendil"), and follows the noun if it is emphasizing a point (Elendil voronwa - "Elendil the faithful").
6.) A predicative adjective follows the noun and can be either preceded or followed by the "copula" or coupling word / being verb ná (I mankar ná verya - "The trader is bold") or its conjugations nal, nar, etc (I mankari verya nar - "The traders bold are"). Whether the copula precedes or follows seems to be rather a matter of choice.
7.) A copula is also used to connect two nouns, or an independent pronoun and a noun (I aran ná Noldo - "The king is a Noldo").
8.) A genitive or possessive noun (see Cases) precedes its companion noun when direct (aldaron lassi - "trees' leaves") and follows when indirect (hínë Ilúvataro - "child of God").
9.) Separate prepositions (when noun cases do not include them or are not used for some reason) precede the words they point to.
10.) When forming nouns, pronoun endings always come first, then case endings, and finally dual or plural endings.
11.) Fully-formed verbs include endings which describe tense, as well as the universal pronoun endings. For which suffix to use to relay a desired tense, see Verb Conjugations.
12.) When using a direct pronoun for a subject, incorporate it into the verb (sílaro - "he shines"). When using a name or word for a subject, leave verb in basic tense state (Soron síla - "Soron shines"; i eleni síla - "the stars shine").
13.) When forming verbs, tense endings come first, then pronoun endings, then finally dual or plural endings. Do not use independent pronouns along with an unsuffixed form of the verb instead.
14.) Verbs must agree with their subjects in number. For how verbal plurals are made, see the document on Plurals.
15.) Adverbs seem able to either precede or follow the verbs they modify. Many adverbs are simply made from taking an adjective and adding -vë to the end (if the adjective ends in -ë, this is replaced by -i- first). For those not made in this way, see Adverb list.
16.) Conjunctions precede the words they refer to.
17.) The conjunction i - "the" disappears before a proper name.
18.) The conjunctions "a" and "an" are not used.
19.) When the end letter of a word is the same as the beginning letter of a following word, the end letter is replaced with the mark ' .
20.) When using Tengwar, only proper names are capitalized (pronouns do not count even if using reverentives such as "thee"). If using the Common alphabet, names and the beginnings of sentences are capitalized.