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Verb Conjugation Guide

Sindarin verbs work differently, yet similarly to Quenya verbs. Unlike Quenya which uses the same general pronoun endings for everything including verbs, Sindarin tends to use independent pronouns for all purposes except with verbs.  Verbs have their own special pronoun endings, appended to the end of the proper verb tense. The ONLY time an independent pronoun would be used with a verb (and even then it is along with the properly-suffixed verb, not instead of) is when it is being emphasized, such as when saying "I will run, not you" (Im nerithon, -le).

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Being verbs (conjugated like regular A-verbs; see there for proper pronoun endings)

 

stem "be": na-

to be: na

be! (imperative): no!

**

PRESENT-TENSE BEING VERBS ARE NOT GENERALLY USED IN PURE SINDARIN, seemingly only when paired with lone adverbs (which must by rule follow a verb not a noun) or when especially emphasizing (ex. "You are beautiful").

am/are/is: n

**

The following are used more widely, when dealing in past or future tenses. Remember these are only valid with nouns and adjectives; for verbs let the specific conjugations do the work.

was/were: nant

    (when adding a pronoun ending, -nt becomes -nn-)

will be: nath

**

has/have been: nolant

    (when adding a pronoun ending, -nt becomes -nn-)

being: nol

    (special case, used with an independent pronoun)

    (ex. "I am being" = "Im nol")

will have been: nolan

**

being/having been: niel

**

have not been: av-

am/is/are not: -

will not be: ava-

do not be (imperative): avo!   (stress on last syllable)

 

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I-stems (all verb-roots which end in anything but -a-, including rare other vowels)

 

Pronoun endings for past tenses:

        I:  -in

        you:  -ich    

        we: -iam

        they: -iar

        he/she/it: (no pronoun added)

Pronoun endings for present tenses:

        I: -in

        you: -ich    

        we: -im

        they: -ir

        he/she/it: (no pronoun added)

Pronoun endings for future tenses:

        I: -on

        you: -ach    

        we: -am

        they: -ar

        he/she/it: (no pronoun added)

**

example stem "stop": dar-

to stop: deri

   (the -i- makes a and o become e)

imperative "stop!": daro!   (stress on last syllable when standing alone as a command)

imperative "do not stop!": avo-daro!   (stress on last syllable of "avo")

**

stopped: darn

    (an -i- makes a and o become e;  ex. "I stopped" - dernin)

    (see here for important info)

stop/stops: dr

    (if polysyllabic, no change from stem)

    (an -i- makes  a and o become e;  ex. "I stop" - derin)

will stop: deritha

    (the -i- makes a and o become e)

**

has/have stopped: darnel

    (when stem vowel is i, suffix becomes -iel instead of -el)

am/are/is stopping: darel

    (when stem vowel is i, suffix becomes -iel instead of -el)

will be stopping: derithel

    (the -i- makes a and o become e)

will have stopped: darnil

**

was/were stopped: darnen

am/are/is stopped: daren

will be stopped: derithen

**

has/have been stopped: dareren

will have been stopped: deritheren

**

stopping/having stopped: deriel

    (when stem vowel is i, it lengthens to )

having been stopped: derien

    (when stem vowel is i, it lengthens to )

    (the -i- makes a and o become e)

**

I-stem verbs form gerund (noun) with the suffix -ed

I-stem verbs form participle (adjective form) with the suffix -en added to the basic past-tense form

    (When -en is added to the endings -nt, -nc, -mp, -nd, they for phonological reasons become -nn-, -ng-, -mm-, -nn-)

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A-stems (all verb-roots which end in -a-)

 

Pronoun endings for past tenses:

        I: -a > -en

        you: -a > -ech

        we: -a > -em

        they: -a > -er

        he/she/it: (no pronoun added)

Pronoun endings for present, future tenses:

        I: -a > -on

        you: -a > -ach    

        we: -a > -am

        they: -a > -ar

        he/she/it: (no pronoun added)

**

example stem "give": anna-

to give: anna

imperative "give!": anno!   (stress on last syllable when standing alone as a command)

imperative "do not give!": avo-anno!   (stress on last syllable of "avo")

**

gave: annant

    (when adding a pronoun ending, -nt becomes -nn-)

give/gives: anna

will give: annath

**

has/have given: annolant

    (when adding a pronoun ending, -nt becomes -nn-)

am/are/is giving: annol

will be giving: annolath

will have given: annolan

**

was given: annannan (annant + -an)

am/are/is given: annan

will be given: annathan

**

has/have been given: anneren

will have been given: annatheren

**

giving/having given: ennel

    (a and o will beome e; o and u will become ; i, e, and diphthongs do not change)

having been given: ennen

    (a and o will beome e; o and u will become ; i, e, and diphthongs do not change)

**

A-stem verbs form gerund ("-ing" noun) with the suffix -ad

A-stem verbs form participle (adjective form) with the suffix -nnen

    (particle adj ("given" - annannen) looks the same as first-person past tense verb ("I gave"); context must determine which word is being used)