free web hosting | free website | Business Hosting Services | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting

Home (Main Index)

Email Us (any questions welcome)

Places

   Beleriand

   Eldamar

   Eriador

   Arnor

   Rhovannion

   Rhn

   Rohan

   Gondor

   Mordor

Time

   First Age

   Second Age

   Third Age

   Fourth Age

   Fifth Age

People

   Men (Aphadrim)

   Elves (Eldar)

   Dwarves (Khazad)

   Hobbits (Periannath)

Eldarin Language Resources

Other Language Resources

Mutation / Lenition Guide (definition)

In Sindarin, often the usage of a preposition, the creation of a compound word, or the placing of a noun as a direct object will cause certain changes in the first consonant of the second or following word.  This page is a listing of which changes occur, and when.  (Also see bottom of page for a few other changes that can occur at the end of a word, plus a special first-letter case.) 

Note: Pronouns, including relative pronouns, do not mutate or lenite normally; they only change, if at all, in a way specifically stated (in the pronoun lists).  Also, proper names do not appear to lenite.

******

Soft Lenition

When:

Occurs after prepositions and articles ending in a vowel, with the exception of -o; also a - "and" does not cause a change.

Occurs in the first letter of the second word in a compound, if the first element ended with anything but -o.

Occurs in the direct object noun of a sentence, but not after an imperative.

 

What:

t- > d-

d- > dh-

p- > b-

b- > v-

f- > v- (not always; see note near bottom of page)

m- > v-

c- > g-

g- > - (except when making a compound name; there is no and the letter disappears entirely)

            (does also affect gh-, gw-, and ghw-, even though those are separate letters of their own)

h- > ch-

hw- > chw-

s- > h- (except after i - "the")

 

******

Nasal Mutation

When:

Occurs after prepositions ending in -n.

 

What:

t- > th-

p- > ph-

b- > m-

c- > ch-

h- > ch-

 

******

Stop Mutation

When:

Occurs after prepositions ending in -d or -o.

Occurs in the first letter of the second word in a compound, if the first element ended with -o.

 

What:

t- > th-

p- > ph-

c- > ch-

h- > ch-

hw- > w-

 

******

Liquid Mutation

When:

Occurs after prepositions ending in -r or -l; except that ar - "and" does not cause a change.

 

What:

t- > th-

d- > dh-

p- > ph-

b- > v-

m- > v-

c- > ch-

g- > - (does not affect gh-, gw-, or ghw-; those are separate letters of their own!)

h- > ch-

hw- > chw-

 

******

Other changes that occur

When second element of a compound, and previous element ends in r or l, a beginning f- > -v-

(note: seemingly this does not always occur, as in names with "-fin"; perhaps these names are in an older form or, being names, subject to the same flexion of rules which allows in compound-word names a transposition of adjectives and nouns in whichever order is pleasing rather than grammatically correct)

At end of word, a root -v- > -f

When first element of a compound or before any ending, an end -f > -v-

When first element of a compound or before any ending, an end -w > -u-

When first element of a compound or before any ending, an end -nc > -ng-