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Sindarin Language Resources
Proper names (of languages, peoples, a few places)
SENTENCE STRUCTURE - THE RULES
1.) When forming a sentence or phrase, follow this rule: subject (and its modifiers), then verb (and any adverbs), then object (and its modifiers), and finally indirect object (if there is one; and its modifiers). However, sometimes this order can be, and is, mixed around in poetry or song.
2.) There are a couple of differences between formal, common/informal, and very informal speech. See here for a guide to questions and pronoun usage.
3.) Subject pronouns (you, I, he, she, it, they, etc) precede whatever words they refer to (Im bo ir amon - "I am on the hill").
4.) Object pronouns and related words (me, him, them, to-me, for-you, etc) follow whatever words refer to them (Norn enni - "He ran to me").
5.) Possessive pronouns (my, mine, your, his/her/its, etc) follow whatever words they refer to (laer nín - "my song").
6.) Other possessives are formed by appending -dh to the end of a noun or name preceding the word it refers to, except when this would be phonetically awkward (for example after -n), then the suffix is -idh (Elandidh ind - "Elandi's heart").
7.) Adjectives follow the nouns they modify (brennil bain - "fair lady").
8.) Adverbs follow the verbs or adjectives they modify (nori au - "to run away"; anwa daerol - "largely true") with the exception of mae - “well”, which irregularly is placed before the verb in all cases except with an imperative, in which case it also is placed after.
9.) Conjunctions precede the words they refer to (i dhû - "the night").
10.) The conjunction i / ir (or the plural in) disappears before a proper name.
11.) The conjunctions "a" and "an" are not used; rather, the lack of any other conjunction suggests them.
12.) Prepositions precede the words they point to.
13.) Prepositions often cause lenitions or other mutations in the first capitals of next words. For which changes are caused when and to what letters, see document on Mutation and Lenition.
14.) Forming compound words usually causes lenition or mutation in the first letter of the second element. For which changes are caused when and to what letters, see document on Mutation and Lenition.
15.) Making a noun (not pronoun or name) a direct object often causes it to be lenited. However, it does not appear to lenite after an imperative verb. For which changes are caused to what letters, see document on Mutation and Lenition.
16.) The present-tense being verbs "is", "am", "are" are not used except under special circumstances. For a list of being verbs (including past and future tenses) see document on Verb Conjugations.
17.) Action verbs include special suffixes which describe person and tense. Do not use pronouns along with the unsuffixed form of the verb instead. You will be saying something quite different. For example: Berion - "I protect", while Im beria - "I he protects" (which isn’t even the correct way to say it; that would be Beria nin - "He protects me"). For which suffixes to use to relay the desired person and tense see document on Verb Conjugations.
18.) When emphasizing a pronoun with a verb, the independent pronoun is placed before the already-suffixed verb form - not instead of. See note at beginning of document on Verb Conjugations.
19.) When using Tengwar, only proper names are capitalized (pronouns do not count even if using reverentives such as "thee"). If using the Common alphabet, names and the beginnings of sentences are capitalized.
20.) Do a search for synonyms for your English word if possible, as well as the precise word you are thinking of. Sometimes one word in English can mean two things, whereas in Sindarin those meanings would likely be two different words. Make sure you are using the right word. For example, take the verb "look": in the sense of "look, appear" this would translate as thia, whereas in the sense of "look at" it would be tir. Take care with your word choices.21.) If you still cannot find a translation for that particular English word, try to think of another way to state your phrase. Sindarin does not necessarily always follow English in style; it is a language of a people with a sometimes quite different culture and mindset. Also take into account that this dictionary is ever-growing and changing; a word may be found or derived at a later date. If a word is greatly desired or needed however, please contact me, and I will try to hunt it down.
This is not to be a listing to discourage anyone who may find themselves in any one of these categories. Instead, it is to point out where something may be incorrect for learning purposes.
1.) "amin", "creoso", etc - No such words exist. If you found it on a website called the Grey Company, or the page where you found it got it from there, be very cautious. This is not Arda elvish, but a made-up language sometimes known as "Grelvish", created for a completely different RP and only based lightly off Quenya and Sindarin. Very few words here are still directly taken from either of the above languages. Avoid it.
2.) Adjectives - A common mistake is to place the adjective before its noun. You can do this in Quenya, but not Sindarin. Instead, place it after the noun.
3.) Being verbs - A common mistake is to use na - "is/are" in sentences, as would be in English. However, in Sindarin this is actually improper usage. Present-tense being verbs are only used to emphasize.
4.) Possessive pronouns - A common mistake is to place one of these, such as nín - "my", before the noun it describes. Actually, it is supposed to go after. Example: ion nín - "my son".
5.) Verbs - A very common mistake is to use pronouns with basic verb forms. Instead, read the Verb Conjugation document and use the proper conjugations.
6.) Mutation and lenition - It is very common to see written Sindarin which is correct in most ways other than including no lenition. In my mind, this is perhaps the most forgivable of all mistakes. It is a bit difficult to learn and remember the proper mutations. However, for truly proper Sindarin, an effort should be made.