free web hosting | free hosting | Business Hosting Services | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting

Home (Main Index)

Email Us (any questions welcome)

Places

   Beleriand

   Eldamar

   Eriador

   Arnor

   Rhovannion

   Rhûn

   Rohan

   Gondor

   Mordor

Time

   First Age

   Second Age

   Third Age

   Fourth Age

   Fifth Age

People

   Men (Aphadrim)

   Elves (Eldar)

   Dwarves (Khazad)

   Hobbits (Periannath)

Eldarin Language Resources

Other Language Resources

The Reckoning of Time

Eldar

Men

Periannath (Shirefolk)

Note as to below date listings:

For humans and hobbits these will remain the same in relation to our own calendar, with the exception of a one-day shift in dates between our Feb 29 and their Midsummer extra day on leap years.  We might as well see this as happening on the same year as our leap year, instead of a year apart or etc, since we do not know the (likely there is one) difference as to when it falls within the four-year cycle - this could be calculated however if anyone could tell me exactly how long the Fourth Age was!  It is known that since the Fifth began with the Industrial Revolution (officially 1713 so for lack of other info this is the year I'm working with) and the Fourth began somewhere around 1000 BC, the Fourth Age was approximately 2700 years long, but since it is not known when exactly the Fourth started in relation to our calendar, the information given in the Red Book as to dates is of little use in this matter.

When dealing with the elven calendar this dating can become a little more complicated, because their leap year comes every 12 years.  Therefore I went into more detail  for this chart.  The elven reckoning shifts one day off 3 times in that 12-year period, looping back to match again during the Eldarin leap year.

Individual leap year systems are explained in more detail under each section.

 

Eldar

Note on Quenya vs Sindarin names for days, months, and seasons:

Which names are used in the Third Age is not entirely a matter of primary language spoken, although that does have an influence, but also is a matter of the heritage of each place. The Silvan use Sindarin and their own Silvan as languages, and the Sindarin names. The Sindar scattered across Ennor use Sindarin as a language, and the Sindarin names. The people of Lothlórien use a mix of Quenya and Sindarin as a language, and the Quenya names. The people of Imladris use Sindarin as the common language, Quenya in formalities, the Quenya names for days, and the Sindarin names for seasons.  As for Imladris months, I am uncertain at this point as to Q or S.

Therefore, although Sindarin is the language worked with here, the Quenya names are also provided.

******

In some fashions, human and Eldar reckon time and days much the same. In others, the races are very different indeed. In this area as well, the Eldarin propensity and preference for counting in multiples of six and twelve becomes evident.

 

Increments of Time

    a second/moment: tiva    (indeterminate very short period of time)

    a minute: hanté    (indeterminate short period of time not a literal minute)

    a time-period (see below):

    a day:

    a week: enquié

    a month: asta

    a season: 

    a year: idhrinn

    a century (100 years): haranin

    a long-year (144 years): yén

    a millenium (1000 years): menegil

    an Age: andrann

 

The Day

A single day is counted either from sunrise to sunrise (as in Imladris) or sunset to sunset (as among the Silvan). Number of hour-equivalents in a day are unknown. Perhaps it is not even an issue; instead of counting specific numerical increments of a day, the Eldar seem to speak of what general period of day (ie. mid-morning, sunset, deep night, etc) it is. Known names for these periods, near as they can be understood, are:

    arad (aurë) "day", "daylight", daytime"

    dû (lómë) "night", "nighttime"

    **

    rûn (anarórë) "sunrise"

    aur (arin) "morning" (after sunrise)

    arie (arya) "mid-morning" (before noon)

    enedhór (peraurë) "mid-day" (noon and early afternoon)

    haid (sána) "late-day" (mid- to late afternoon)

    nûn (anarúntë) "sunset"

    aduial (yúkalë) "dusk" (after sunset; before first stars)

    undomé (undomë) "star-opening" (getting dark)

    thin (andúnë) "evening" (after dark)

    loem (ló, perlómë) "night" (before midnight, midnight)

    fuin (lómin) "deep night" (after midnight)

    tindomé (tindomë) "star-fading" (getting light)

    minuial (ára) "dawn" (before sunrise)

 

The Week

An Eldarin week employs six days rather than seven. The days all are named after important things to the culture of the people. There is no known division into "weekdays" and "weekends"; all days incorporate work and play both. Vacations or rest days are not scheduled but taken when needed, if such will not cause trouble to other people. Somehow, this loose system does not seem to fall apart into laziness as it often would with humans.

   Day 1 - Orgilion (Elenya) "stars-day"

   Day 2 - Oranor (Anarya) "sun-day"

   Day 3 - Orithil (Isilya) "moon-day"

   Day 4 - Orgelaidh (Aldúya) "trees-day"

   Day 5 - Ormenel (Menelya) "Heavens-day"

   Day 6 - Orbelain (Valanya) "Powers-day"

A seventh day, introduced by Men and picked up later in a few of the scattered Eldarin communities of Ennor, is Oraeron (Ëarenya), the "sea-day".

 

Months and the Year

An Eldarin month is composed of exactly 30 days, or 5 weeks, with a new week beginning with each month. There are twelve months in a year but they do not correspond to human ones; rather, one Eldarin month will span approximately the last half of a human month and the first half of the next. There are also 5 special holidays that appear outside of and between the months themselves, giving each year a total of 365 days.  Rather than accounting for a "leap year" day every four years, instead an extra three days are added to the Midsummer holiday of Erulaitalé every twelve years (which ends up having the same effect eventually).  Among some groups, however, instead one day was added to each of the holidays of Erulaitalé, Eruhantalé, and Eruchermé; this appears to be the case in Imladris.  Every 144 years (on the last year of each yén, which is a leap year) one of these extra days is omitted.

Like months, the beginning and end of the Eldarin year is not the same as on a human calendar. Rather than beginning around the same time as January, after the winter solstice, the year begins just after the spring equinox, as the world begins to come alive. Here we see a listing of the Eldarin months and the 5 special days, in order, using the Imladris system of leap year days.  Below there is a chart with modern human year/month correspondents.

Yestaré

    First Day; the beginning of a new year

Month 1 - Gwirith (Víressë)

Month 2 - Lothron (Lótessë) "flowering"

Month 3 - Nórui (Nárië) "sunny"

Erulaitalé "praise to Eru"

    Midsummer Day; the summer solstice

Erulaitalé 2

    extra festival day on leap years

Month 4 - Cerveth (Cermië)

Month 5 - Urui (Úrimë) "hot"

Month 6 - Ivanneth (Yavannië) "harvest-time"

Eruhantalé "thanksgiving to Eru"

    Harvest Day; the fall equinox

Eruhantalé 2

    extra festival day on leap years

Month 7 - Narbeleth (Narquelië) "sun-waning"

Month 8 - Hithui (Hísimë) "misty"

Month 9 - Girithron (Ringarë) "shivering"

Eruchermé "prayer to Eru"

    Midwinter Day; the winter solstice

Eruchermé 2

    extra festival day on leap years

Month 10 - Narwain (Narvinyë) "new sun"

Month 11 - Nínui (Nénimë) "watery"

Month 12 - Gwaeron (Súlimë) "great wind"

Mettaré

    Last Day; the spring equinox

 

Month or Day

2003-2004

(Human Leap)

2004-2005

(Eldarin Leap)

2005 -- 2007

2007-2008

(HL)

2008 -- 2011

Yestaré

Mar 21

Mar 20

Mar 23

Mar 23

Mar 22

Gwirith (Víressë)

Mar 22 - Apr 20

Mar 21 - Apr 19

Mar 24 - Apr 22

Mar 24 - Apr 22

Mar 23 - Apr 21

Lothron (Lótessë)

Apr 21 - May 20

Apr 20 - May 19

Apr 23 - May 22

Apr 23 - May 22

Apr 22 - May 21

Nórui (Nárië)

May 21 - Jun 19

May 20 - Jun 18

May 23 - Jun 21

May 23 - Jun 21

May 22 - Jun 20

Erulaitalé

Jun 20

Jun 19

Jun 22

Jun 22

Jun 21

Erulaitalé 2

 

Jun 20

     

Cerveth (Cermië)

Jun 21 - Jul 20

Jun 21 - Jul 20

Jun 23 - Jul 22

Jun 23 - Jul 22

Jun 22 - Jul 21

Urui (Úrimë)

Jul 21 - Aug 19

Jul 21 - Aug 19

Jul 23 - Aug 21

Jul 23 - Aug 21

Jul 22 - Aug 20

Ivanneth (Yavannië)

Aug 20 - Sep 18

Aug 20 - Sep 18

Aug 22 - Sep 20

Aug 22 - Sep 20

Aug 21 - Sep 19

Eruhantalé

Sep 19

Sep 19

Sep 21

Sep 21

Sep 20

Eruhantalé 2

 

Sep 20

     

Narbeleth (Narquelië)

Sep 20 - Oct 21

Sep 21 - Oct 20

Sep 22 - Oct 21

Sep 22 - Oct 21

Sep 21 - Oct 20

Hithui (Hísimë)

Oct 20 - Nov 18

Oct 21 - Nov 19

Oct 22 - Nov 20

Oct 22 - Nov 20

Oct 21 - Nov 19

Girithron (Ringarë)

Nov 19 - Dec 18

Nov 20 - Dec 19

Nov 21 - Dec 20

Nov 21 - Dec 20

Nov 20 - Dec 19

Eruchermé

Dec 19

Dec 20

Dec 21

Dec 21

Dec 20

Eruchermé 2

 

Dec 21

     

Narwain (Narvinyë)

Dec 20 - Jan 18

Dec 22 - Jan 20

Dec 22 - Jan 20

Dec 22 - Jan 20

Dec 21 - Jan 19

Nínui (Nénimë)

Jan 19 - Feb 17

Jan 21 - Feb 19

Jan 21 - Feb 19

Jan 21 - Feb 19

Jan 20 - Feb 18

Gwaeron (Súlimë)

Feb 18 - Mar 18

Feb 20 - Mar 21

Feb 20 - Mar 21

Feb 20 - Mar 20

Feb 19 - Mar 20

Mettaré

Mar 19

Mar 22

Mar 22

Mar 21

Mar 21

 

Month or Day

2011-2012

(HL)

2012 -- 2015

 

2015-2016

(HL)

2016-2017

(EL)

 

Yestaré

Mar 22

Mar 21

Mar 21

Mar 20

 

Gwirith (Víressë)

Mar 23 - Apr 21

Mar 22 - Apr 20

Mar 22 - Apr 20

Mar 21 - Apr 19

 

Lothron (Lótessë)

Apr 22 - May 21

Apr 21 - May 20

Apr 21 - May 20

Apr 20 - May 19

 

Nórui (Nárië)

May 22 - Jun 20

May 21 - Jun 19

May 21 - Jun 19

May 20 - Jun 18

 

Erulaitalé

Jun 21

Jun 20

Jun 20

Jun 19

 

Erulaitalé 2

     

Jun 20

 

Cerveth (Cermië)

Jun 22 - Jul 21

Jun 21 - Jul 20

Jun 21 - Jul 20

Jun 21 - Jul 20

 

Urui (Úrimë)

Jul 22 - Aug 20

Jul 21 - Aug 19

Jul 21 - Aug 19

Jul 21 - Aug 19

 

Ivanneth (Yavannië)

Aug 21 - Sep 19

Aug 20 - Sep 18

Aug 20 - Sep 18

Aug 20 - Sep 18

 

Eruhantalé

Sep 20

Sep 19

Sep 19

Sep 19

 

Eruhantalé 2

     

Sep 20

 

Narbeleth (Narquelië)

Sep 21 - Oct 20

Sep 20 - Oct 21

Sep 20 - Oct 21

Sep 21 - Oct 20

 

Hithui (Hísimë)

Oct 21 - Nov 19

Oct 20 - Nov 18

Oct 20 - Nov 18

Oct 21 - Nov 19

 

Girithron (Ringarë)

Nov 20 - Dec 19

Nov 19 - Dec 18

Nov 19 - Dec 18

Nov 20 - Dec 19

 

Eruchermé

Dec 20

Dec 19

Dec 19

Dec 20

 

Eruchermé 2

     

Dec 21

 

Narwain (Narvinyë)

Dec 21 - Jan 19

Dec 20 - Jan 18

Dec 20 - Jan 18

Dec 22 - Jan 20

 

Nínui (Nénimë)

Jan 20 - Feb 18

Jan 19 - Feb 17

Jan 19 - Feb 17

Jan 21 - Feb 19

 

Gwaeron (Súlimë)

Feb 19 - Mar 19

Feb 18 - Mar 19

Feb 18 - Mar 18

Feb 20 - Mar 21

 

Mettaré

Mar 20

Mar 20

Mar 19

Mar 22

 

 

In example of how a date could be translated into a modern one, or vice versa, let us take, randomly, April 25 (in the year before leap-year). The month of Lothron begins with the equivalent of April 21 in that year, so therefore April 25 would translate as "Lothron 4", which incidentally, seeing as there are exactly 5 weeks to each month and each month begins a new week, would be Orgelaidh / Aldúya.

 

Seasons

Although the Eldarin year may have 12 months, even if those months be counted differently, it differs even more from the human year by the understanding of seasons. In the Eldarin mindset, there are six seasons in a year rather than four, and they are not at all identical in length although from one year to the next the length of a single season tends to be close to the same. Neither do they begin on certain dates. They are not judged by date but rather by weather; spring begins when it begins to look and feel like spring, and so on. Nevertheless, to the Eldar, seasons are not merely a vague concept, but about as important to their concept of calendar as months and years.

Season 1 - Ethuil (Tuilë) "spring"

    Weather is warming, rain is plentiful, plants are sprouted and growing

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Gwirith to near the end of Lothron

Season 2 - Laer (Lairë) "summer"

    Weather is hot, plants dry out if there is not enough rain

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Nórui to near the end of Urui

Season 3 - Iavas (Yavië) "autumn"

    Weather cools somewhat, still warm, leaves begin to fall from trees

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Ivanneth to near the end of Narbeleth

Season 4 - Firith (Quellë) "fading"

    Weather is cool, often rainy, trees and many bushes lose all leaves

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Hithui to near the middle of Girithron

Season 5 - Rhîw (Hrívë) "winter"

    Weather is cold, snow falls

    Tends to span from near the middle of Girithron to near the middle of Nínui

Season 6 - Echuir (Coirë) "stirring"

    Weather is chill, snow melts, rain is plentiful, plants begin to sprout

    Tends to span from near the middle of Nínui to near the end of Gwaeron

These seasons, although not entirely regular, still play a role in dating. While this may seem pointless to a human, from the perspective of a race that has a lifespan of thousands of years, or from the perspective of a historian, such dating technique could prove to provide interesting information. For example, stating that an event happened in the month of Girithron tells a reader that the weather was cold, but adding that it was the season of Firith would paint an added picture of rain and bare trees, whereas stating that it was the season of Rhîw would tell the reader that there was snow. Since seasons do not follow months or days precisely, the latter would not provide setting information while the mentioning of season with a date would do so very succinctly.

Therefore, using the previous example of April 25, the properly-written Eldarin date might be "Aldúya, Lothron 4, Ethuil".

 

Years, Long-years, and Ages

A year, as stated before, is simply 12 months, beginning at the spring equinox. However, when speaking of numbers of years, and especially when dating, it becomes important to ask, which year is it?

First of all, it must be understood in which Age an event occurred. This is very important; obviously, the year 1200 of the Second Age is not the same as the year 1200 of the Third Age! The Ages break up the events of history into large periods, a new Age usually starting with a major change in the world. (See: The Ages)

Ages are also broken up into "long-years", or yéni, each of which is 144 solar years long. Each new Age begins a new yén, even if the last was not complete. In dating, this is a means of breaking down the history of an Age into more understandable chunks, much like humans do with centuries. It is merely that the Eldar, while they speak of and even count in 100-year centuries, instead write events and dates in terms of yéni. It is rather a simple matter to discover which yén an event happened in. Merely count how many 144-year periods have passed since the beginning of that Age.

Continuing with the April 25 example, let us say now that we know it took place in the year 2135 of the Third Age, assuming that this year was again the year before leap year. The date would now be written, in full, "Aldúya, Lothron 4, Ethuil, 2135, yén 14, T.A.".

Or, would a more relevant example be preferred? On Wednesday, October 22, 2003 A.D. in the modern, Gregorian calendar, the days were still quite warm. Therefore, in the Eldarin calendar, it would instead, in full, be Isilya, Hithui 3, Iavas, 291, yén 3, Ft.A (Fifth Age). A shortened version, which might be used for journals and the like, would be Hithui 3, 5-291, Iavas.

******

Alternate Season/Months

An alternate Eldarin dividing of the year, known only as a thing of some past time and using only Quenya, uses the six season names instead of the twelve months to count days with. Often called in what histories we have left the Calendar of Imladris, or the Reckoning of Rivendell, the name is rather misleading as the people of Imladris did not actually use this calendar. Possibly the name came from the fact that at some point Imladris gained some calendar-tapestries of indeterminate and possibly ancient origin which remained hanging rather noticably in the Hall of Fire as a part of the near-museum that parts of Rivendell became. All that can be known with certainty is that it was not an Avarin/Silvan culture that used this system, nor the peoples that were influenced by the Avari after the Helcaraxë. The common calendar of the later Second Age and since is a combination of the original Avarin and Noldorin reckonings; the holidays at the least (with the exception of the two New-Year days) are known to have Avarin origin. It is conjecture alone, but there is a possibility that the origins of this alternate system may even have been Valinorian, possibly used by the followers and descendants of Fëanor. This method involves setting specific dates for the seasons, contrary to the common calendar discussed previously in detail, and has an rather different set of special holidays although there are still five of them. It is not known to be used in the Third Age.

Yestarë

    The first day of the year

    Mar 28

Season/Month 1 - Tuilë

    54 days

    Mar 29 - May 21

Season/Month 2 - Lairë

    72 days

    May 22 - Aug 1

Season/Month 3 - Yavië

    54 days

    Aug 2 - Sept 25

Enderi

    3 special days in the middle of the Eldarin year

    Possibly a Midyear festival

Season/Month 4 - Quellë

    54 days

    Sept 28 - Nov 20

Season/Month 5 - Hrívë

    72 days

    Nov 21 - Jan 31

Season/Month 6 - Coirë

    54 days

    Feb 1 - Mar 26

Mettarë

    The last day of the year

    Mar 27

For a general example of how this might have been used, let us take again the previously used examples. April 25 (Lothron 2) would translate here as Tuilë 28, and October 22 (Hithui 1) would be Quellë 25. To demonstrate the larger numbers, July 27 (Urui 7) would be Lairë 67.

It is unknown how years themselves were counted with this system, if at all differently.

 

**************************************************************************

Aphadrim (Men)

This section speaks first of the Gondorian method of time-reckoning, and later of the methods of Eriador, the simpler lands of towns such as Bree.

******

The calendar system of Gondor originated from Númenor, and was built originally around the common Eldarin calendar. As such, it holds many similarities. Even most of the names are in Sindarin (Númenor's was in Quenya, though, and the special-days here are in Quenya).

 

The Week

One noticable difference at the level of the week is that there are seven days rather than six (likely born of the 7 Biblical days of Creation, which Man as a race was more aware of). This, it would be assumed, would not lead to such a tidy ordering of day-names and weeks within a month as the Eldarin calendar does. More likely it would look more like our own Gregorian calendar.

   Day 1 - Orgilion "stars-day"

   Day 2 - Oranor "sun-day"

   Day 3 - Orithil "moon-day"

   Day 4 - Orgaladh "tree-day"

   Day 5 - Ormenel "Heavens-day"

   Day 6 - Orbelain "Powers-day"

   Day 7 - Oraearon "ocean-day"

 

Months and the Year

A year starts around Midwinter. Like the Eldarin year, there are twelve months in a year, all comprised of 30 days. Also like the Eldarin year, there are 5 special holidays that appear outside of and between the months themselves, giving each year a total of 365 days.  Every four years (leap-year), an extra loëndë day is added.  The last year of every century, this extra day is omitted. 

Here we see a listing of the months and the 5 special days, in order.  Below there is a chart with modern year/month correspondents.

Yestarë

    New Year's day

Month 1 - Narwain

Month 2 - Nínui

Month 3 - Gwaeron "great wind"

Tuilë

    Spring festival

Month 4 - Gwirith

Month 5 - Lothron "flowering"

Month 6 - Nórui "sunny"

Loëndë

    Midsummer Day, Mid-Year

Loëndë 2

    Festival-day on leap-years

Month 7 - Cerveth

Month 8 - Urui "hot"

Month 9 - Ivanneth "harvest-time"

Yáviérë

    Harvest festival

Month 10 - Narbeleth "sun-waning"

Month 11 - Hithui "misty"

Month 12 - Girithron "shivering"

Mettarë

    Midwinter Day; the last day of the year

 

Month or day Non leap-years Leap-years
     
Yestarë Dec 22 Dec 22
Narwain Dec 23 - Jan 21 Dec 23 - Jan 21
Nínui Jan 22 - Feb 20 Jan 22 - Feb 20
Gwaeron Feb 21 - Mar 22 Feb 21 - Mar 21
Tuilë Mar 23 Mar 22
Gwirith Mar 24 - Apr 22 Mar 23 - Apr 21
Lothron Apr 23 - May 22 Apr 22 - May 21
Nórui May 23 - June 21 May 22 - June 20
Loëndë June 22 June 21
Loëndë 2   June 22
Cerveth June 23 - July 22 June 23 - July 22
Urui July 23 - Aug 21 July 23 - Aug 21
Ivanneth Aug 22 - Sep 20 Aug 22 - Sep 20
Yáviérë Sep 21 Sep 21
Narbeleth Sep 22 - Oct 21 Sep 22 - Oct 21
Hithui Oct 22 - Nov 20 Oct 22 - Nov 20
Girithron Nov 21 - Dec 20 Nov 21 - Dec 20
Mettarë Dec 21 Dec 21

 

When translating modern dates into ancient human ones, about half the time the date name and number ends up the same as its Eldarin equivalent, even though where the year ends and begins is different.  For example, let us take again April 25. Both the Gondorian and Eldarin month of Lothron begin with the equivalent of April 23, so therefore April 25 would still translate as "Lothron 2".  However, September 22 would translate "Narbeleth 1" in the Gondorian calendar, and "Narbeleth 2" in the Eldarin.

 

Seasons

Seasons would seem to be the same four that we know today, used not for dating but only for description.  Unlike ours though, they tend to not follow dates but weather instead.

Season 1 - Spring

    Weather warms slowly, rain is plentiful, plants sprout and grow

    Tends to span from around Tuilë to near the end of Lothron

Season 2 - Summer

    Weather is hot, plants dry out if there is not enough rain

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Nórui to near mid-Ivanneth

Season 3 - Autumn

    Weather cools, leaves fall from trees, can be rainy

    Tends to span from near mid-Ivanneth to near the end of Hithui

Season 4 - Winter

    Weather is cold, cold rain falls, then snow

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Girithron to around Tuilë

 

Years, Centuries, and Ages

A year, as stated before, is simply 12 months, beginning at Midwinter. However, when speaking of numbers of years, and especially when dating, it becomes important to ask, which year is it?

The concept of Ages is one shared and agreed upon by all races - in this area Men count no differently than do the Eldar.

Ages are broken up into centuries, 100-year periods, but they are not used in dating as the Eldarin yéni are, only in describing a space of time, as when telling or writing about history.

Keeping the April 25 example, and knowing it took place in the year 2135 of the Third Age, which was not a leap year, the date would be written, in the Gondorian method, " Lothron 2, 2135 T.A.".

 

******

The methods of Eriadorian time-reckoning are the same as hobbit-style; really the only differences are in month and day names.  It is uncertain whether the Men or the Hobbits came up with this method first, or whether it was a joint event.

Here is a list of Eriadorian names for days and months.  For dating and how the system works, see Periannath.

 

The Week

   Day 1 - Sterrendei

   Day 2 - Sunnendei

   Day 3 - Monendei

   Day 4 - Trewesdei

   Day 5 - Hevenesdei

   Day 6 - Meresdei

   Day 7 - Highdei

 

The Months

2 Yule

    New Year's day

Month 1 - Frery

Month 2 - Solmath

Month 3 - Rethe

Month 4 - Chithing

Month 5 - Thrimridge

Month 6 - Lithe

First Summerday

Second Summerday

    Midyear's Day

High Summerday

    Great festival day of a leap-year

Third Summerday

Month 7 - Mede

Month 8 - Wedmath

Month 9 - Harvestmath

Month 10 - Wintring

Month 11 - Blooting

Month 12 - Yulemath

1 Yule

    Midwinter Day; the last day of the year

 

**************************************************************************

Perinannath (Hobbits)

The calendar of hobbits is the closest of all Ennor's methods of dating to our own. This however is not to be unexpected, especially with the similarity between hobbit/Breeland culture and old English rural culture; in truth the latter likely descended from the former. The calendar of the Perinannath is based upon the human/Gondorian calendar described above, but special-days are different, and names are in the local dialect of Common (which also has similarities to that of Rohan), not any Eldarin tongue.

******

The Week

Weekday names are based upon Dúnedain origin, which derived from Gondorian, so it is not much surprise to see that they are similar (if in a dialect) to the translation of each respective Gondorian/Eldarin name.  Note however that the order of the last two days has been switched.  "Highday" to the people of Eriador, including hobbits, is rather like our Sunday, a day of rest and praise.

   Day 1 - Sterday "star-day"

   Day 2 - Sunday "sun-day"

   Day 3 - Monday "moon-day"

   Day 4 - Trewsday "trees-day"

   Day 5 - Hevensday "Heavens-day"

   Day 6 - Mersday "ocean-day"

   Day 7 - Highday "Powers-day"

 

Months and the Year

Months are, like Eldarin and Gondorian, 30 days long each, and there are again 5 special holidays, at the end and beginning of the year, and at Midyear.  The Periannath set up their system such that every year begins on the first day of the week, Sterday, and ends on the last day of the week, Highday.  Midyear's Day and Overlithe belong to no weekday; however other holidays do.  All this insures a form of dating in which a date one year would have the same weekday name as the same date another year.  Every fourth year, except for the last year of a century, a leap-year event happens.  Below this list there is a chart with modern year/month correspondents.

2 Yule

    New Year's day, festival day

Month 1 - Afteryule

Month 2 - Solmath

Month 3 - Rethe

Month 4 - Astron

Month 5 - Thrimidge

Month 6 - Forelithe

1 Lithe

    Festival day

Midyear's Day

    Festival day

Overlithe

    Great festival day of a leap-year

2 Lithe

    Festival day

Month 7 - Afterlithe

Month 8 - Wedmath

Month 9 - Halimath

Month 10 - Winterfilth

Month 11 - Blotmath

Month 12 - Foreyule

1 Yule

    Midwinter Day, festival day; the last day of the year

 

(Names in parentheses are Eriador-human)

Month or day Non leap-years Leap-years
     
2 Yule Dec 22 Dec 22
Afteryule (Frery) Dec 23 - Jan 21 Dec 23 - Jan 21
Solmath Jan 22 - Feb 20 Jan 22 - Feb 20
Rethe Feb 21 - Mar 22 Feb 21 - Mar 21
Astron (Chithing) Mar 23 - Apr 21 Mar 22 - Apr 20
Thrimidge (Thrimridge) Apr 22 - May 21 Apr 21 - May 20
Forelithe (Lithe) May 22 - June 20 May 21 - June 19
1 Lithe (First Summerday) June 21 June 20
Midyear (Second Summerday) June 22 June 21
Overlithe (High Summerday)   June 22
2 Lithe (Third Summerday) June 23 June 23
Afterlithe (Mede) June 24 - July 23 June 24 - July 23
Wedmath July 24 - Aug 22 July 24 - Aug 22
Halimath (Harvestmath) Aug 23 - Sep 21 Aug 23 - Sep 21
Winterfilth (Wintring) Sep 22 - Oct 21 Sep 22 - Oct 21
Blotmath (Blooting) Oct 22 - Nov 20 Oct 22 - Nov 20
Foreyule (Yulemath) Nov 21 - Dec 20 Nov 21 - Dec 20
1 Yule Dec 21 Dec 21

 

Seasons

Seasons would seem to be the same four that we know and humans have always used, used not for dating but only for description.

Season 1 - Spring

    Weather warms slowly, rain is plentiful, plants sprout and grow

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Rethe to near the end of Forelithe

Season 2 - Summer

    Weather is hot, plants dry out if there is not enough rain

    Tends to span from around the Lithe-days to early-to-mid Halimath

Season 3 - Autumn

    Weather cools, leaves fall from trees, can be rainy

    Tends to span from near mid-Halimath to near the end of Blotmath

Season 4 - Winter

    Weather is cold, cold rain falls, then snow

    Tends to span from near the beginning of Foreyule to near the end of Rethe

 

Years, Centuries, and Ages

A year is simply 12 months, beginning the day after Midwinter. However, when speaking of numbers of years, and especially when dating, it becomes important to ask, which year is it?

The concept of Ages is one shared and agreed upon by all races - in this area hobbits count no differently than do Men or Eldar.

Ages are broken up into centuries, 100-year periods, but they are not used in dating, only in describing a space of time, as when telling or writing about history.

Still using the April 25 example, and knowing it took place in the year 2135 of the Third Age which was not a leap year, the date would be written, in hobbit/Eriador style, "Thrimidge (or Thrimridge) 4, 2135 T.A.".